Alphabetical Herbs

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

The articles listed have been entered in PubMed in 2014 only, so far.

Herbs are listed by their current accepted botanical (Latin) names, verified by The Plant List.

Studies on isolated compounds found in only one or few species (e.g., glycyrrhizin in licorice) are typically included in the references for the respective botanicals. Studies on isolated compounds broadly represented in the plant kingdom (e.g., quercetin) are found in the separate “Single compounds” list

See also: Fungi, Single compounds

Note: As of March 2014, we have stopped updating this page, due to the high number of botanicals making this impractical.

A

Abelmoschus manihot: preclinical (1)

Acacia arabica (babul): preclinical (1)

Acacia catechu (catechu): preclinical (1)

Acacia seyal: preclinical (1)

Acanthopanax koreanum: preclinical (1)

Acanthus ebracteatus (sea holly): preclinical (1)

Achillea millefolium (yarrow): preclinical (1)

Achyranthes aspera (apamarga): preclinical (1)

Aconitum carmichaelii: chemistry (1); processing effects (1); preclinical (1)

– Dai Huang Fu Zi Tang: preclinical (1)

– Shenfu injection: (1)

Aconitum flavum: preclinical (1)

Aconitum pendulum (pendulous monkshood, shortstalk monkshood): preclinical (1)

Aconitum tanguticum: chemistry (1)

Acorus calamus: processing (1)

Actaea racemosa (black cohosh): quality (1)

Aegle marmelos (bael): review (1)

Aerva lanata (mountain knotgrass): preclinical (1)

Ageratina pichinchensis: preclinical (1)

Ageratum conyzoides (Billy-goat weed): preclinical (1)

Allium macrostemon: preclinical (1)

Allium sativum (garlic): (1)

Alnus glutinosa (black alder): preclinical (1)

Aloe sp.: meeting report (1)

Aloe vera (aloe): preclinical (1), (2), (3); case report (1)

Aloysia triphylla: preclinical (1)

Alpinia katsumadai: preclinical (1)

Alpinia oxyphylla: chemistry (1)

Alstonia macrophylla: review (1)

Alstonia scholaris: review (1)

Althaea officinalis (marshmallow): preclinical (1)

Amphipterygium adstringens: (1)

Anadenanthera colubrina: cultivation (1)

Andrographis paniculata: cultivation (1); preclinical (1)

Anemarrhena asphodeloides: review (1)

Angelica dahurica: chemistry (1)

Angelica pubescens: chemistry (1)

Angelica sinensis  (dong quai): preclinical (1), (2), (3)

Antrodia cinnamomea: preclinical review (1)

Aquilaria sinensis: chemistry (1)

Aralia taibaiensis: preclinical (1)

Aristolochia spp. (Aristolochia Fructus, ma dou ling): processing (1)

Artemisia annua (sweet wormwood): chemistry (1)

Aronia spp. (chokeberry): clinical trial (1).

Asparagus officinalis (asparagus): preclinical (1)

Asparagus racemosus: preclinical (1)

Aspidosperma spp.: review (1)

Astragalus membranaceus: see Astragalus propinquus, Astragalus spp.

Astragalus propinquus (syn. Astragalus membranaceus): preclinical (1), (2), (3)

Astragalus spp.: meta-analysis (1); preclinical (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7); interactions (1), (2)

Atractylodes macrocephala (bai zhu): chemistry (1); interactions (1)

Azadirachta indica (neem): preclinical (1), (2), (3)

B

Bacopa monnieri (bacopa): preclinical (1), (2)

Bauhinia forficata (Brazilian orchid tree): preclinical (1)

Beilschmiedia acuta (Cameroon): preclinical (1)

Berberis aquifolium (Oregon grape): see also berberine.

Berberis vulgaris (barberry): preclinical (1); clinical (1); see also berberine.

Bergenia himalaica: see Bergenia pacumbis

Bergenia pacumbis (rock begonia): preclinical (1)

Betula sp.: (1)

Boophone disticha: preclinical (1)

Boschniakia rossica: preclinical (1)

Bridelia ferruginea: preclinical (1)

Brucea javanica (yadanzi): preclinical (1)

Bupleurum marginatum: preclinical (1)

Bupleurum yinchowense: preclinical (1)

Bursera fagaroides: chemistry (1)

C

Caesalpinia minax: chemistry (1), (2)

Caffea sp. (coffee): clinical trial (1)

Calendula officinalis (calendula): clinical (1).

Calotropis procera (Sodom apple): preclinical (1)

Camellia sinensis (tea): safety (1); preclinical (1), (2); clinical trial (1).

Carica papaya (papaya): preclinical (1)

Carya cathayensis (Chinese hickory): preclinical (1)

Caryopteris incana: preclinical (1)

Carissa carandas (karaunda): preclinical (1)

Carthamus tinctorius (safflower): preclinical (1)

Cassia obtusifolia (Cassiae Semen): quality control (1)

Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle): chemistry (1)

Cecropia pachystachya: preclinical (1)

Ceiba pentandra (kapok): preclinical (1)

Centaurea spp.: preclinical (1)

Centella asiatica (gotu kola): cultivation (1); preclinical (1)

Chelidonium majus: preclinical (1)

Chlidanthus fragrans: preclinical (1)

Christia vespertilionis (red butterfly wing): preclinical (1)

Cimicifuga racemosa: see Actaea racemosa

Cinnamomum burmannii: preclinical (1)

Cinnamomum camphora var. linaloolifera: preclinical (1)

Cinnamomum chartophyllum: preclinical (1)

Cinnamomum mollifolium: preclinical (1)

Cinnamomum subavenium: review (1)

Cinnamomum verum syn. Cinnamomum zeylanicum(true cinnamon): chemistry (1); preclinical (1), (2)

Cistanche spp.: quality (1)

Citrus aurantium (bitter orange): preclinical (1)

Citrus reticulata (mandarin): chemistry (1)

Citrus sinensis (orange): preclinical (1)

Clausena anisata (Cameroon): preclinical (1)

Clinopodium chinense: chemistry (1)

Clusia nemorosa (1)

Cnidium monnieri (Cnidii Fructus): quality control (1)

Codonopsis pilosula (dang shen): preclinical (1)

Cola acuminata: chemistry (1)

Cola nitida: chemistry (1)

Commiphora myrrha (myrrh): clinical trial (1).

Coptis chinensis (coptis): processing (1); preclinical (1), (2), (3), (4); safety (1); see also berberine

Cordia myxa (Assyrian plum): preclinical (1)

Coreopsis spp.: review (1)

Coriandrum sativum (cilantro [leaves], coriander [seed]): clinical (1).

Corydalis denticulatobracteata: preclinical (1)

Corydalis sp.: preclinical (1)

Corydalis turtschaninovii: preclinical (1)

Corydalis yanhusuo: preclinical (1)

Crataegus spp.: chemistry (1); review (1)

Crocus sativus (saffron): preclinical (1), (2)

Cuminum cyminum (cumin): preclinical (1), (2)

Curcuma longa (turmeric): chemistry (1); preclinical (1), (2), (3)

Curcuma sp.: preclinical (1)

Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass): preclinical (1); preparations (1)

Cynanchum atratum: preclinical (1), (2)

Cynara scolymus (artichoke): preclinical (1)

Cynomorium coccineum subsp. songaricum: chemistry (1); preclinical (1)

Cyperus rotundus (nutgrass): pharmacognostic evaluation (1); clinical trial (1).

D

Dalbergia odorifera: preclinical (1)

Daphne genkwa (yuan hua): preclinical (1)

Decalepis hamiltonii (decalepis): preclinical (1)

Desmodium styracifolium: preclinical (1)

Dichrostachys cinerea: preclinical (1)

Dracaena cambodiana (dragon’s blood): cultivation (1)

Dracocephalum foetidum (Mongolia): chemistry (1)

Drynaria fortunei: chemistry (1)

Dioscorea zingiberensis: cultivation (1)

Drosera peltata (shield sundew): chemistry (1)

E

Echinacea purpurea: chemistry (1)

Echinacea spp.: review (1)

Eclipta alba: see Eclipta prostrata

Eclipta prostrata (bhringaraj): review (1)

Elaeagnus pungens (silverthorn, thorny olive): chemistry (1)

Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus (eleuthero): preclinical (1)

Emblica officinalis: see Phyllanthus emblica

Ephedra sinica: clinical trial (1)

Epimedium sp. (horny goat weed): preclinical (1)

Eriobotrya japonica (loquat): preclinical (1)

Erythrina abyssinica: preclinical (1)

Erythrina verna (mulungu): preclinical (1)

Eucommia ulmoides (Chinese rubber tree): genetics (1)

Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus): preclinical (1)

Eugenia jambolana: see Syzygium cumini

Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali): preclinical (1)

Evodia lepta: preclinical (1)

Evodia rutaecarpa: preclinical (1)

F

Fagara tessmannii (Cameroon): preclinical (1)

Fagopyrum esculentum (common buckwheat): chemistry (1)

Fagopyrum tataricum (Tartary buckwheat): chemistry (1)

Fallopia japonica: see Polygonum cuspidatum

Fatsia japonica: preclinical (1)

Fatsia polycarpa: preclinical (1)

Ferula dissecta: preclinical (1)

Ferula lutea: preclinical (1)

Foeniculum vulgare (fennel): preclinical (1)

Fritillaria spp.: review (1)

Fritillaria thunbergii: chemistry (1)

Fucus vesiculosus (bladderwrack): preclinical (1)

G

Garcinia cambogia (garcinia cambogia): preclinical (1)

Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen): preclinical (1), (2); clinical trial (1)

Garcinia schomburgkiana: preclinical (1)

Gardenia jasminoides (Cape jasmine): preclinical (1), (2)

Gelsemium spp.: review (1)

Gentiana lutea (long dan cao): preclinical (1)

Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo): chemistry (1); preclinical (1); clinical (1); meta-analysis (1).

Glycine max (soya): clinical trial (1)

Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice): chemistry (1); preclinical (1)

Glycyrrhiza spp. (licorice): chemistry (1); preclinical (1), (2), (3); processing (1); quality control (1)

Glycyrrhiza uralensis (licorice): chemistry (1)

Grewia trichocarpa: preclinical (1)

Griffonia simplicifolia (1)

Gymnema sylvestre: chemistry (1)

H

Handroanthus impetiginosus (lapacho): preclinical (1)

Hedera helix (common ivy): mechanism of action (1)

Hedyotis diffusa (sheshecao): quality control (1)

Hedysarum mackenziei: safety (1)

Hedysarum sp. (hong qi): preclinical (1)

Helicteres angustifolia: preclinical (1)

Hintonia latiflora: preclinical (1)

Houttuynia cordata: review (1)

Hovenia dulcis: (1)

Hovenia trichocarpa: chemistry (1)

Humulus lupulus (hop): (1)

Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort): preclinical (1), (2); culture (1)

I

Ibervillea sonorae (wereke): preclinical (1)

Ilex hainanensis: preclinical (1)

Ilex paraguariensis (yerba mate): preclinical (1)

Isatis indigotica: cultivation (1)

Isatis tinctoria: quality (1)

J

Jacaranda caroba (Brazilian caroba-tree): preclinical (1)

Juglans regia (common walnut): preclinical (1), (2); clinical trials (1), (2).

K

Kaempferia marginata: preclinical (1)

Kaempferia parviflora:  preclinical (1)

Kaempferia rotunda:  preclinical (1)

Kalanchoe pinnata: preclinical (1)

Kelussia odoratissima (mountain celery): chemistry (1)

L

Laminaria japonica (kelp): preclinical (1)

Lamiophlomis rotata: chemistry (1)

Laurus nobilis (bay laurel): preclinical (1)

Lavandula sp. (lavender): clinical (1)

Lawsonia inermis (henna): (pre?)clinical (1)

Lessertia frutescens (kankerbos, cancerbush): chemistry (1)

Linum usitatissimum (flax): preclinical (1)

Lippia sidoides (rosemary pepper): preclinical (1)

Liriope muscari syn. L. platyphylla: preclinical (1)

Litchi chinensis (lychee): (1)

Lithospermum erythrorhizon: preclinical (1)

Litsea garrettii: preclinical (1)

Lobelia chinensis: (1)

Lonicera japonica (honeysuckle): preclinical (1), (2)

Loranthus parasiticus (mulberry mistletoe): see Scurrula parasitica

Lycium barbarum (goji, wolfberry): preclinical (1)

Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife): preclinical (1), (2)

M

Maclura tricuspidata (Chinese mulberry): chemistry (1)

Mahonia aquifolium: see Berberis aquifolium

Malus toringoides (Tibetan: E se): preclinical (1)

Marsdenia tenacissima: preclinical (1)

Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile): clinical trials (1), (2)

Melia azedarach (China berry tree): cultivation (1); preclinical (1)

Mentha longifolia (horse mint): clinical trial (1).

Mentha ×piperita (peppermint): quality control (1)

Mentha spicata (spearmint): quality control (1)

Micromelum falcatum: chemistry (1)

Mitragyna speciosa (kratom): systematic review (1)

Momordica charantia (bitter melon): preclinical (1), (2), (3)

Morinda citrifolia (noni): review (1); adverse effect (1); preclinical (1); cultivation (1)

Morinda officinalis (Indian mulberry): preclinical (1)

Moringa oleifera (moringa): preclinical (1), (2)

Morus spp. (mulberry): chemistry (1); preclinical (1); interactions (1)

Muntingia calabura: preclinical (1)

Myrtus communis (myrtle): preclinical (1)

N

Nardostachys jatamansi (spikenard): preclinical (1)

Nelumbo nucifera (lotus): preclinical (1)

Neobeguea mahafalensis: preclinical (1)

Neolitsea spp. (bolly tree): preclinical review (1)

Nervilia fordii: chemistry (1)

Newbouldia laevis (Cameroon): preclinical (1)

Nigella sativa (black cumin): preclinical (1); safety (1); clinical trials (1), (2).

O

Ocimum basilicum (basil, sweet basil): chemistry (1)

Ocimum gratissimum (clove basil): preclinical (1)

Ocimum sanctum (holy basil, tulsi): review (1)

Olax subscorpioides: preclinical (1)

Olea europaea (olive): preclinical (1), (2)

Ophiopogon japonicus (mai meng dong): quality control (1)

Origanum syriacum (1)

Origanum vulgare (oregano): chemistry (1)

Oryza sativa (rice): preclinical (1)

Otostegia persica: preclinical (1)

P

Paeonia sterniana: preclinical (1)

Paeonia suffruticosa (moutan, mu dan pi): processing (1)

Panax bipinnatifidus syn. P. major, P. japonicus var. major, P. pseudoginseng var. major, etc.: preclinical (1)

Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng, Korean ginseng): chemistry (1), (2); review (1); preparations (1); preclinical (1), (2)

– red: preclinical (1), (2), (3)

– Shenfu injection: quality control (1)

– white: preclinical (1)

– flowers: preclinical (1)

Panax notoginseng (sanqi, tienchi): review (1); cultivation (1); chemistry (1); (1), (2), (3)

Panax quinquefolius: chemistry (1); quality control (1), (2)

Panax spp.: review (1); preclinical (1); quality control (1)

Paris polyphylla (TCM): cultivation (1); preclinical (1)

Paris sp.: chemistry (1)

Passiflora edulis: preclinical (1)

Peganum harmala (Syrian rue): preclinical (1)

Pelargonium sidoides (umckaloabo): review (1); preclinical (1)

Peperomia dindygulensis: chemistry (1)

Petasites japonicus (fuki, giant butterbur, Japanese sweet coltsfoot): preclinical (1), (2)

Peucedanum praeruptorum (qian hu): preclinical (1)

Phellodendron amurense, Phellodendron chinense (cortex phellodenrii, huáng bai): chemistry (1); cultivation (1); see also berberine

Phyllanthus niruri (bhumyamalaki, chanca piedra): preclinical (1)

Phoenix dactylifera (date palm): review (1); preclinical (1)

Phyllanthus emblica (amla): preclinical (1), (2), (3)

Picralima nitida (akuamma): preclinical (1)

Piper betle (betel): review (1)

Piper capense (wild pepper): preclinical (1)

Piper sarmentosum: preclinical (1)

Pistacia integerrima: preclinical (1)

Polygonum cuspidatum (Japanese knotweed): preclinical (1), (2); quality control (1); review (1)

Polygonum orientale (kiss-me-over-the-garden-gate): chemistry (1)

Polygonum tinctorium (indigo): chemistry (1)

Polyscias fulva (Cameroon): preclinical (1)

Polytrichum commune: preclinical (1)

Prinsepia utilis: preclinical (1)

Prunus armeniaca (bitter apricot): quality control (1)

Prunus persica (peach), seed: preclinical (1); adverse effects (1)

Pteris semipinnata: chemistry (1)

Pueraria spp. (kudzu): chemistry (1), (2); preclinical (1), (2), (3), (4); interaction (1).

Punica granatum (pomegranate): clinical trial (1); preclinical (1), (2), (3)

Q

Quassia africana: preclinical (1)

R

Rauwolfia serpentina (1)

Reynoutria elliptica (1)

Rehmannia glutinosa (sheng di huang): chemistry (1), (2); preclinical (1)

Rhaponticum carthamoides (maral root): preclinical (1)

Rheum spp. (rhubarb, da huang): processing (1), (2); quality control (1), (2), (3); preclinical (1), (2)

Rhodiola rosea: review (1); preclinical (1), (2)

Rhododendron molle: chemistry (1)

Rhus chinensis (Chinese sumac) galls: preclinical (1)

Rhus verniciflua (Japanese sumac): see Toxicodendron vernicifluum

Rosa canina (dog rose): preclinical (1)

Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose): preclinical (1)

Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary): preclinical (1); clinical trial (1).

Rubus idaeus (raspberry): preclinical (1)

Ruta graveolens (common rue): preclinical (1)

S

Salix alba (white willow): preclinical (1)

Salvia miltiorrhiza (danshen): cultivation (1); chemistry (1); preclinical (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6); interactions (1)

Salvia officinalis (garden sage): (1)

Salvinia auriculata (eared watermoss): preclinical (1)

Sanguisorba officinalis: processing (1)

Saposhnikovia divaricata: preclinical (1); interactions (1)

Sarcocephalus latifolius [sub-Saharan Africa]: preclinical (1)

Sarcopoterium spinosum: preclinical (1)

Sargassum (seaweed): adverse event (1)

Satureja hortensis (summer savory): preclinical (1)

Saururus chinensis: preclinical (1), (2)

Scapania aspera (liverwort): preclinical (1)

Schinus terebinthifolius (aroeira): preclinical (1)

Schisandra chinensis (schisandra): chemistry (1); interactions (1); preclinical (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6)

Schizonepeta tenuifolia (Japanese catnip): processing (1)

Scurrula parasitica: ethnomedicinal use, review (1)

Scutellaria baicalensis (Baikal skullcap): processing (1); preclinical (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6)

Scutellaria spp.: preclinical (1)

Securidaca inappendiculata: preclinical (1)

Selaginella tamariscina (spikemoss): preclinical (1)

Senna singueana: preclinical (1)

Senecio graveolens: preclinical (1)

Serenoa repens (saw palmetto): chemistry (1); preclinical (1), (2)

Sesamum indicum (sesame): preclinical (1)

Sideritis scardica: preclinical (1)

Siegesbeckia orientalis: preclinical (1)

Silybum marianum (milk thistle): preclinical (1)

Sophora flavescens (ku shen): preclinical (1)

Sophora japonica (huai hua): quality (1)

Spatholobus suberectus (Caulis Spatholobi): preclinical (1)

Sphaeralcea angustifolia (copper globemallow): preclinical (1)

Sphaeranthus indicus: clinical trial (1)

Spilanthes spp.: review (1)

Stachys lavandulifolia: safety (1)

Stachys tymphaea: preclinical (1)

Stemphylium sp.: preclinical (1)

Stevia rebaudiana (sweetleaf): cultivation (1)

Struchium sparganophorum (yerba de faja): toxicity (1)

Syzygium aromaticum (clove): preclinical (1)

Syzygium cumini (jamun): review (1); interactions (1)

T

Tabebuia impetiginosa: see Handroanthus impetiginosus

Tamarindus indica: preclinical (1)

Taraxacum officinale (dandelion): preclinical (1), (2)

Teucrium scordium (water germander): preclinical (1)

Thymus caramanicus: chemistry (1)

Thymus citriodorus: (1)

Thymus siriacus: (1)

Tinospora cordifolia (guduchi): preclinical (1), (2)

Toxicodendron vernicifluum (Japanese sumac): preclinical (1)

Trachyspermum ammi (ajwain): preclinical (1)

Trianthema portulacastrum (horse purslane): preclinical (1)

Tribulus terrestris (puncture vine): cultivation (1)

Tridax procumbens (Jayanti veda): chemistry (1)

Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek): meta-analysis (1); preclinical (1), (2), (3)

Tripterygium hypoglaucum: chemistry (1)

Tripterygium wilfordii (Thunder God vine): chemistry (1), (2); clinical trial (1).

Triticum spp. (wheat): preclinical (1)

Turnera diffusa (damiana): ethnobotany, review (1)

Turnera spp.: ethnobotany, review (1)

Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot): preclinical (1); quality control (1)

U

Urtica dioica (stinging nettle): quality (1); preclinical (1)

V

Vaccinium macrocarpon (American cranberry): clinical (1).

Viscum album (mistletoe): clinical trial (1).

Vitex doniana [Africa]: preclinical (1)

Vitex negundo: chemistry (1)

Vitex trifolia subsp. litoralis (syn. V. rotundifolia): preclinical (1)

Vitis vinifera (grape): chemistry (1)

seed extract: preclinical (1)

W

Warburgia ugandensis (Uganda greenheart): preclinical (1)

Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): chemistry (1); cultivation (1); preclinical (1); case report (1); clinical trials (1), (2).

Z

Zingiber cassumunar: preclinical (1)

Zingiber officinale (ginger): safety (1); preclinical (1), (2), (3); cultivation (1); case report (1); clinical trial (1).

Fungi

Cordyceps sinensis: preclinical (1)

Cordyceps spp., mycelium: preclinical (1)

Ganoderma lucidum (reishi, ling zhi): cultivation (1)

Phellinus igniarius: (1)

Single compounds

Berberine: preclinical (1), (2)

Chlorogenic acid: preclinical (1)

Crocin: preclinical (1)

Iridoid glucosides: chemistry (1)

Isorhamnetin (metabolite of quercetin):  preclinical (1)

Quercetin: preclinical (1)

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