Flavonoid Content In Certain Tropical Plants

Lovely piece of data: Miean KH, Mohamed S. Flavonoid (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, and apigenin) content of edible tropical plants. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Jun;49(6):3106-12. PubMed PMID: 11410016.

Total flavonoids:

  • onion leaves (1497.5 mg/kg quercetin, 391.0 mg/kg luteolin, and 832.0 mg/kg kaempferol)
  • Semambu leaves (2041.0 mg/kg)
  • bird chili (1663.0 mg/kg)
  • black tea (1491.0 mg/kg)
  • papaya shoots (1264.0 mg/kg)
  • guava (1128.5 mg/kg).

The major flavonoid in these plant extracts is quercetin, followed by myricetin and kaempferol.

Luteolin could be detected only in:

  • broccoli (74.5 mg/kg dry weight)
  • green chili (33.0 mg/kg)
  • bird chili (1035.0 mg/kg)
  • onion leaves (391.0 mg/kg)
  • belimbi fruit (202.0 mg/kg)
  • belimbi leaves (464.5 mg/kg)
  • French bean (11.0 mg/kg)
  • carrot (37.5 mg/kg)
  • white radish (9.0 mg/kg)
  • local celery (80.5 mg/kg)
  • limau purut leaves (30.5 mg/kg)
  • dried asam gelugur (107.5 mg/kg).

Apigenin was found only in:

  • Chinese cabbage (187.0 mg/kg)
  • bell pepper (272.0 mg/kg)
  • garlic (217.0 mg/kg)
  • belimbi fruit (458.0 mg/kg)
  • French peas (176.0 mg/kg)
  • snake gourd (42.4 mg/kg)
  • guava (579.0 mg/kg)
  • wolfberry leaves (547.0 mg/kg)
  • local celery (338.5 mg/kg)
  • daun turi (39.5 mg/kg)
  • kadok (34.5 mg/kg).

In vegetables, quercetin glycosides predominate, but glycosides of kaempferol, luteolin, and apigenin are also present. Fruits contain almost exclusively quercetin glycosides, whereas kaempferol and myricetin glycosides are found only in trace quantities.

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